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                          《平等、參與、共享:新中國殘疾人權益保障70年》白皮書(5)(中英對照)

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                          IV. Special Education and Inclusive Education

                          四、特殊教育與融合教育
                          China provides equal rights to education for persons with disabilities. The state has promulgated and revised the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities, included education for them in the "Outline of China's Plan for Medium- and Long-term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)", "China's Education Modernization 2035", and "Plan for Promoting Equal Access to Basic Public Services in the 13th Five-year Plan Period", and enacted two phases of the "Special Education Promotion Plan". All of this is designed to improve special education, develop inclusive education, and ultimately improve overall education for persons with disabilities.
                          中國保障殘疾人享有平等受教育權,頒布并修訂《殘疾人教育條例》,將殘疾人教育納入《國家中長期教育改革和發展規劃綱要(2010-2020年)》《中國教育現代化2035》和《“十三五”推進基本公共服務均等化規劃》,制定實施兩期《特殊教育提升計劃》,著力辦好特殊教育,努力發展融合教育,提高殘疾人受教育水平。
                          The system of education for persons with disabilities has become more complete. In China, education for persons with disabilities is primarily managed by educational departments, assisted by civil affairs organs, disabled persons' federations, and social organizations. It covers preschool education, elementary education, secondary education, and higher education. Most children with disabilities attend school with children without disabilities or go to special education schools, and some receive education at home either with visiting teachers or through long-distance education programs. Both forms of education are available for coordinated implementation. A funding system has been put in place to cover children and students with disabilities from kindergarten to college. Since the fall semester in 2016, poor students with disabilities in regular senior high schools have been exempt from fees, so that they receive 12-year free education from elementary school to senior high school.
                          殘疾人教育體系日趨完備。中國殘疾人教育以教育部門為辦學主體,民政、殘聯和社會力量輔助,涵蓋學前教育、初等教育、中等教育和高等教育。以普通學校隨班就讀為主體,以特殊教育學校為骨干,以送教上門和遠程教育為補充,統籌推進,普特結合。建立起從幼兒園到高等院校的殘疾兒童和殘疾學生資助體系,自2016年秋季學期起,免除普通高中家庭經濟困難殘疾學生學雜費,從而實現家庭經濟困難殘疾學生從小學到高中階段的12年免費教育。
                          More children and teenagers with disabilities have received compulsory education. Based on the principle that all school-age children and teenagers with disabilities must go to school and none shall be denied schooling, the state has gone to great lengths to increase the capacity of special education schools and regular schools to accommodate more students with disabilities, as well as designating teachers to go to teach these students at their home. Through these efforts children and teenagers with disabilities enjoy the greatest possible right to compulsory education. The number of students at special education schools has grown significantly over the years, and children and teenagers with visual, hearing, intellectual and other types of impairments now have more chances of schooling than ever before. In 2018, 666,000 students with disabilities studied on campus, an increase of 298,000 persons, or 81 percent over 2013.
                          殘疾兒童少年義務教育普及水平顯著提高。各地按照“全覆蓋、零拒絕”的要求,通過提高特殊教育學校招生能力、擴大普通學校殘疾學生隨班就讀規模及送教上門等多種方式,最大限度地保障適齡殘疾兒童少年接受義務教育的權利。特殊教育在校生數量逐年大幅度上升,視力、聽力、智力等各種類別的殘疾兒童少年受教育機會明顯增加。2018年,在校生66.6萬人,比2013年增加29.8萬人,增長81%。
                          Non-compulsory education for persons with disabilities has made steady progress. The state has continued to expand the scale of preschool education for children with disabilities, encouraging regular kindergartens to enroll more of them and special education schools to open preschool courses or kindergartens. Preschool costs for disabled children from poor families have been included in funding programs for children. In 2016, more than 30,000 disabled children attending kindergartens received subsidies. From 2012 to 2018, about RMB310 million from the public welfare lotteries for persons with disabilities were used to support preschool education for 105,000 disabled children from poor families.
                          殘疾人非義務教育穩步發展。不斷擴充殘疾兒童學前教育規模,除普通幼兒園積極招收殘疾兒童外,還鼓勵特殊教育學校增設學前班或附屬幼兒園,將家庭經濟困難的殘疾兒童接受學前教育納入幼兒資助范圍。2016年,3萬多名在園殘疾幼兒獲得專門資助。2012年至2018年,殘疾人事業彩票公益金助學項目共投入約3.1億元,為10.5萬人次家庭經濟困難的殘疾兒童提供學前教育資助。
                          Senior high schools have opened special departments or classes for students with disabilities, so that they have more opportunities to receive senior high school education. The state has issued the "Directives on Accelerating the Development of Vocational Education for Persons with Disabilities". In 2018, China had 133 secondary vocational schools or classes with an enrollment of 19,475 students with disabilities. To develop higher education and provide more channels for students with disabilities, the state has issued the Regulations on the Participation of Persons with Disabilities in the National Exams for Regular Institutions of Higher Education, providing convenient access to exams, along with necessary support for students with disabilities. From 2012 to 2018, a total of 62,200 students with disabilities were enrolled into regular institutions of higher education.
                          舉辦殘疾人高中部(班),擴大殘疾人接受高中教育的機會。制定《關于加快發展殘疾人職業教育的若干意見》,加快發展殘疾人職業教育。2018年,全國共有殘疾人中等職業學校(班)133個,在校生19475人。穩步發展殘疾人高等教育,努力暢通殘疾人接受高等教育的渠道,制定《殘疾人參加普通高等學校招生全國統一考試管理規定》,為殘疾人參加高考提供合理便利和必要支持。2012年至2018年,全國共有6.22萬殘疾考生進入普通高等院校學習。
                          Regarding admissions, to ensure that the rights of examinees with disabilities are fully protected, the Ministry of Education has clear regulations that colleges and universities shall not refuse students with physical disabilities as long as they can care for themselves, can complete their studies in the disciplines they have applied for, and their exam marks have reached the admission requirements. To provide more opportunities to students with disabilities, the Ministry of Education has ratified 22 higher education institutions to organize exams for them, and distinguished their admission plans from regular admissions. The state encourages institutions of higher education to open disciplines on special education. By June 2018, 61 colleges and universities with regular four-year undergraduate courses were running disciplines on special education, with some 10,000 students. In 2018, higher vocational colleges in China provided 37 programs on special education.
                          在普通高校招生錄取工作中,教育部明確要求,對肢體殘疾、生活能夠自理、能完成所報專業學習且高考成績達到要求的考生,高校不能因其殘疾而不予錄取,切實維護殘疾考生權利。為增加殘障考生上大學機會,教育部批準同意22所高校面向殘障考生采取單獨考試、單列計劃、單獨錄取,鼓勵高校開設特殊教育專業。截至2018年6月,全國已有61所普通本科高校開設特殊教育專業,在校生1萬余人。2018年,全國高職院校開設特殊教育專業點37個。
                          Efforts have been made to develop inclusive education. In 2017, inclusive education was covered by the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities. Other policy papers, such as "China's Education Modernization 2035" and the "Phase-2 Special Education Promotion Plan (2017-2020)", have also called for developing inclusive education. Across China efforts have been made to provide the support necessary for students with disabilities to go to regular schools, such as building more classrooms with resources for special education at regular schools and recruiting full-time and part-time teachers of special education. As a result, the number of students with disabilities at regular schools has seen a steady increase, from 191,000 in 2013 to 332,000 in 2018, an increase of 73.8 percent. Over the past decade, more than 50 percent of students with disabilities have been able to study at regular schools.
                          努力發展融合教育。2017年,融合教育首次寫進《殘疾人教育條例》。《中國教育現代化2035》和《第二期特殊教育提升計劃(2017-2020年)》等文件均提出全面推進融合教育。各地不斷完善隨班就讀支持保障體系,加強普通學校特殊教育資源教室建設,配備專兼職教師,在普通學校就讀的殘疾學生規模不斷擴大。在普通學校就讀的殘疾學生數由2013年的19.1萬人增加到2018年的33.2萬人,增長73.8%。近10年來,殘疾學生在普通學校就讀的比例均超過50%。
                          Public spending on special education has continued to grow. In the period from 2008 to 2015, the state introduced two construction programs for special education schools, investing RMB7.14 billion to build, renovate, or expand 1,182 special education schools in China's central and western regions, and to support improved facilities in 61 institutions of higher education, secondary vocational schools and special education normal schools. Since 2014, the central government has increased the subsidies for special education to RMB410 million per year to cover all areas outside of Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai.
                          特殊教育公共支出持續增長。2008年至2015年,國家實施兩期特殊教育學校建設項目,財政投入71.42億元,新建、改擴建中西部地區1182所特殊教育學校,支持61所殘疾人高等院校、中等職業學校和特殊師范院校改善辦學條件。自2014年開始,中央特教專項補助經費提高到每年4.1億元,支持范圍由中西部地區擴大到除京津滬以外的所有省份。
                          Public spending on students with disabilities in compulsory education at regular and special education schools has increased to RMB6,000 per person per year. In some areas, teachers of disabled students at regular schools, and those teaching home-schooled students, receive subsidies for special education teachers. In addition to state policies already in place, such as exemption from tuition and fees, free textbooks, and living subsidies for poor students in compulsory education, students with disabilities have also received subsidies from local governments, and the standards of the subsidies are improving. In some provinces and municipalities directly under the central government, students with disabilities enjoy free education from elementary to senior high school. East China Normal University and four other colleges and universities have been selected to carry out a special education program to train excellent special education teachers, and the State Training Program for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers has sub-programs for training presidents and teachers of special education schools. By 2018 the program had trained 726 presidents and 10,298 teachers.
                          全國義務教育階段在普通學校和特殊教育學校就讀的殘疾學生年生均公用經費標準提高到6000元。部分地區將普通學校隨班就讀教師、送教上門教師納入享受特教津貼范圍。在國家針對城鄉義務教育學生免除學雜費、免費提供教科書、對家庭經濟困難學生補助生活費的基礎上,各省市還增加了對殘疾學生的資助項目,并逐步提高資助標準。部分省市實施殘疾學生從小學到高中免費教育。遴選確定華東師范大學等5所院校實施卓越特殊教育教師培養改革項目,在“國培計劃”中專設特教學校校長和骨干教師培養項目。截至2018年,培訓特教學校骨干教師10298名、校長726名。

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